Example 3.9 Two parallel rail tracks run north-south. Train A moves north with a speed of 54 km h–1 with a speed of 90 km h–1 , and train B moves south . What is the (a) velocity of B with respect to A ?, (b) velocity of ground with respect to B ?, and (c) velocity of a monkey running on the roof of the train A against its motion (with a velocity of 18 km h–1 with respect to the train A) as observed by a man standing on the ground ?

Exercise 3.1 In which of the following examples of motion, can the body be considered approximately a point object: (a) a railway carriage moving without jerks between two stations. (b) a monkey sitting on top of a man cycling smoothly on a circular track. (c) a spinning cricket ball that turns sharply on hitting the ground. (d) a tumbling beaker that has slipped off the edge of a table.

Exercise 3.2 The position-time (x-t) graphs for two children A and B returning from their school O to their homes P and Q respectively are shown in Fig. 3.19. Choose the correct entries in the brackets below ; (a) (A/B) lives closer to the school than (B/A) (b) (A/B) starts from the school earlier than (B/A) (c) (A/B) walks faster than (B/A) (d) A and B reach home at the (same/different) time (e) (A/B) overtakes (B/A) on the road (once/twice).

Exercise 3.3 A woman starts from her home at 9.00 am, walks with a speed of 5 km h–1 on a straight road up to her office 2.5 km away, stays at the office up to 5.00 pm, and returns home by an auto with a speed of 25 km h–1. Choose suitable scales and plot the x-t graph of her motion.