Euclid’s division lemma, Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic – statements after reviewing work done earlier and after illustrating and motivating through examples. Proofs of results – irrationality of √2, √3, √5 , decimal expansions of rational numbers in terms of terminating/non-terminating recurring decimals.REAL NUMBERS
Zeros of a polynomial. Relationship between zeros and coefficients of a polynomial with particular reference to quadratic polynomials. Statement and simple problems on division algorithm for polynomials with real coefficients.POLYNOMIALS
Pair of linear equations in two variables. Geometric representation of different possibilities of solutions/inconsistency. Algebraic conditions for number of solutions. Solution of pair of linear equations in two variables algebraically – by substitution, by elimination and by cross multiplication. Simple situational problems must be included. Simple problems on equations reducible to linear equations may be included.PAIR OF LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
Standard form of a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, (a ≠ 0). Solution of quadratic equations
(only real roots) by factorization and by completing the square, i.e., by using quadratic formula. Relationship between discriminant and nature of roots. Problems related to day-to-day activities to be incorporated.
Definitions, examples, counterexamples of similar triangles.
1. (Prove) If a line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle to intersect the other two sides in distinct points, the other two sides are divided in the same ratio.
2. (Motivate) If a line divides two sides of a triangle in the same ratio, the line is parallel to the third side.
3. (Motivate) If in two triangles, the corresponding angles are equal, their corresponding sides are proportional and the triangles are similar.
4. (Motivate) If the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional, their corresponding angles are equal and the two triangles are similar.
5. (Motivate) If one angle of a triangle is equal to one angle of another triangle and the sides including these angles are proportional, the two triangles are similar.
6. (Motivate) If a perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the right angle to the hypotenuse, the triangles on each side of the perpendicular are similar to the whole triangle and to each other.
7. (Prove) The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is equal to the ratio of the squares on their corresponding sides.
8. (Prove) In a right triangle, the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides.
9. (Prove) In a triangle, if the square on one side is equal to sum of the squares on the other two sides, the angles opposite to the first side is a right triangle.TRIANGLES
Review the concepts of coordinate geometry done earlier including graphs of linear equations. Awareness of geometrical representation of quadratic polynomials. Distance between two points and section formula (internal). Area of a triangle.COORDINATE GEOMETRY
Trigonometric ratios of an acute angle of a right-angled triangle. Proof of their existence (well defined); motivate the ratios, whichever are defined at 0° and 90°. Values (with proofs) of the trigonometric ratios of 30°, 45° and 60°. Relationships between the ratios.
Trigonometric Identities: Proof and applications of the identity sin2A+cos2A=1 . Only simple identities to be given. Trigonometric ratios of complementary angles.INTRODUCTION TO TRIGONOMETRY
Simple and believable problems on heights and distances. Problems should not involve more than two right triangles. Angles of elevation/depression should be only 30, 45 and 60.SOME APPLICATIONS OF TRIGONOMETRY
Tangents to a circle motivated by chords drawn from points coming closer and closer to the point.
1. (Prove) The tangent at any point of a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact.
2. (Prove) The lengths of tangents drawn from an external point to a circle are equal.CIRCLES